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Enhancement Methods in Image Processing

Enhancement of an image simply means to convert or process an original image to other desired form which is suitable for user application. Availability of enormous enhancement methods sometimes lead to ambiguity in choosing an algorithm to process an image.
In this article, I will mention in brief about the uses of different methods which can be chosen at appropriate situations for beginners who have just entered the field of image processing. There are two important methods used for enhancement. Spatial Domain (direct manipulation of pixels of the image) and Frequency Domain (modifying the Fourier Transform of an image).

Spatial domain is directly applied on the pixel and is defined by g(x,y)=T[f(x,y)].If the processing is done over a 1*1 neighborhood, it is termed as point processing. Point operation include contrast stretching, noise clipping, window slicing and histogram modeling.

Spatial operations include noise smoothing, median filtering, lp, hp & bp filtering and zooming. There are other available methods such as transform operation and pseudo-coloring too.
On learning more about contrast stretching, the idea behind contrast stretching is to increase the dynamic range of the gray levels in the image that is being processed. Sometimes the dynamic range of a processed image far exceeds the capability of the display device, in which case only the brightest parts of the images are visible on the display screen at these situations we can use compression of the dynamic range. Gray level slicing is used for highlighting a specific range of gray levels in an image often is desired. Applications include enhancing features such as masses of water in satellite imagery and enhancing flaws in x-ray images.

Histogram processing can be done in three ways:
• histogram equalization,
• histogram specification and
• local enhancement.

The use of spatial masks for image processing is called spatial filtering. Smoothing filters are used for blurring and for noise reduction. To highlight fine detail in an image or to enhance detail that has been blurred, either in error or as a natural effect of a particular method of image acquisition. Uses of image sharpening vary and include applications ranging from electronic printing and medical imaging to industrial inspection and autonomous target detection in smart weapons. here in this we use masks such as prewitt, sobel or roberts.

 

Enhancement in the frequency domain
We simply compute the Fourier transform of the image to be enhanced, multiply the result by a filter transfer function, and take the inverse transform to produce the enhanced image.
Spatial domain: g(x,y)=f(x,y)*h(x,y) ¬ Frequency domain: G(w1,w2)=F(w1,w2)H(w1,w2).
Image Enhancement is one of the most necessary and important techniques in image research. The aim of enhancement is to improve the visual appearance of an image, or to provide a better transform representation for future automated image processing. Many images like medical images, satellite images, aerial images and even real life photographs suffer from poor contrast and noise. It is necessary to enhance the contrast and remove the noise to increase image quality. One of the most important stages in medical images detection and analysis is Image Enhancement techniques which improves the quality (clarity) of images for human viewing, removing blurring and noise, increasing contrast, and revealing details are examples of enhancement operations. The enhancement technique differs from one field to another according to its objective.

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Architha Reddy is pursuing M.Tech in NITTE, Bangalore. Apart from studies she also researches on different topics in Computer Science and contributes write-ups.

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December 28, 2018

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piece and flip it over the top of the other at a 90 degree angle and then I can go in here and offset it so that I can get my half inch seam so you’ll see what I wind up with here are two little tails that are sticking out on either end and my seam is actually going to be right along this line here where I’ll put this pin to show you how this is going to wind up so when its flipped it’s going to line up perfectly now if I don’t do these little tails on either end you’ll see what happens if I line it up tip to tip and I pin it with a half inch seam that’s what’s going to wind up happening so you cannot put it together this way it needs to have those little tail sticking out 90 degree angle flip it up from here 90 degree angle line up your edges and then simply slide it until you get your half inch seam tip to tip pin it and then run it under your machine so I’m just going to put this underneath on my presser foot and go ahead and stitch this in place now I have this outfitted with my zipper foot on here and I’m just going to sew pretty close to that own piece underneath [Applause] now you’ll notice that the phone piece starts right about here and I have a little tail here and that’s that’s been done on purpose so start about inch inch and a half down from your finish edge of your so once you’re well cord is sewn in place you’ll see the stitching very close to the foam cord underneath and I’ve got my half inch seam allowance all the way along and so that’s nice and finished and ready to be applied to the new fabric so unfortunate enough to have I size individual pieces for the cushions on the seats and I have six individual pieces for the cushions on the backs right now I’m going to start on putting one of the backs together I’ve already completed one of them and so this is what it winds up looking like when it’s completely finished I’ve got this really nice contrast well cord I decided to put on a couple of straps along the back that’s going to attach it to the metal frame on the sectional itself so I attach those as well and then I’ve gone ahead and I’ve simply slip stitched this entire thing along the bottom so I danced already stuff that looks brand-new it’s been wrapped up in a polyester fiberfill fabric so that’s ready to go and great thing about this is that I can now take this as a reference when I’m putting my new pieces together I can visualize how the well cording needs to go and what I need to do with it in order to manipulate it to look like this when I sew it back together so I what I’m going to do at this point is these are the three pieces for the back and I’m going to simply pin these together and sew them now let me simply say something about what I’m doing here with the thread you know you really do need to have a commercial type sewing machine the thread that you’re going to put through that commercial sewing machine is super sick and it really makes a difference in the type of thread that you use UV resistant thread is a polyester thread and this is what’s recommended for a sunbrella or outdoor type fabric so if you have a regular sewing machine what I would say to you about that is you know if you want to go ahead and sew with regular thread that you get at your local fabric store just be aware that it’s not UV resistant and over time that thread is going to break down so if you don’t mind doing this project you know every two or three years or taking some hand stitching to it and going ahead and repairing it from time to time then go right ahead and do that in my case I have a really nice sailrite machine it’s for making sales on sailboats so it’s designed so through eight thick layers of canvas so if you have a machine like that then use that and use this UV protected thread that goes with it polyester thread you can get it in a variety of colors that mine happens to be brown and the nice thing about it is really it’s going to blend in with almost anything you’re really not going to be able to see it so you know another choice for you might be a monofilament nylon thread that’s what I use for upholstery pieces for indoor purposes and that really isn’t particularly a UV resistant thread either but if you are willing to take the cushions off and bring them inside when the weather is inclement then I think you’ll be okay all three pieces of the back are sewn together and so I have two seams here that actually need to be matched up to the two corners of my front piece now I’ve gone ahead and I stitched the well cord onto the face fabric all along the edges and so at this point what I’m going to do here is because it needs to have this kind of strange configuration all along the top and the edge the best thing to do is to take the two corners slime them up along the top edge here and pin them right where the seam is and that way what that will wind up doing for me is give me a reference point as to where the sides need to go sometimes it’s super hard to start stitching at the very bottom and go along all the way to the other side and realize that your half inch too short or 1/2 inch too long so I’m minimizing this by going ahead and making sure that the corners are matched up directly with the seams and you can see that here this is the area that I’m talking about here this is the corner that I’ve just made on the front and here is my seam so this these two areas are where I’m pinning right now so now that idea it’s really great to have it as a reference for you so if you’ve got the luxury of being able to look at the old piece or the new piece whatever it really is helpful so I pulled this nice and tight and I find my very middle and I go ahead and I pin that as well so at this point I’m not going to go ahead and finish pinning all the way around what I want to do really is I want to start stitching at the corner and go all the way around this way and when I’m done with that I’ll go all the way around this way and that’ll make certain that these two corners stay exactly where they need to stay so this is just a way of positioning things I have the needle lowered into the fabric right at the corner here so this is my starting point I’m going to ignore everything to the left of this until I finish this entire seam and the great thing about this machine is that it’s got this underneath this little foot and have a groove and so basically that foam welt can just kind of feed in underneath that groove it’ll keep it nice and straight and that’s what makes it really really nice and taut when you’re done so I’ll go ahead and and I’m making sure that my right hand side is lined up with my fabric underneath I’m at the other corner now and so I’m going to make the turn by raising the presser foot and pulling the fabric toward me this top fabric and then I can lower it again that’ll make a beautiful crisp corner and then I’ll just give you a tutorial on how to deal with these corners this is the curved corner and so it’s really kind of difficult to go ahead and manipulate this fabric around and so basically what I do is if the apex of the curve I clip it here and I clip it here and then I can get more control out of this fabric and pulling it around and making a nice perfect yeah okay I have that one side done so I’m going to flip it out just to show you how really nice this works so I have this all stitched in place and so now I’m going to go ahead and go back to that other corner that I left behind and I’m going to work on this side making sure that everything is lined up perfectly I have all the corners are totally lined up everything is nice and neat all the way around I’ve sewn in my two flats and I’ve got a little snap system here I have brass snaps because they’re not going to rust if there is they ever do get wet or exposed to humidity they’re not going to rust through so I have those attached to the back as well before I go ahead and actually put the insert in I’m going to take this polyester fiberfill fabric which is about an inch thick and so I’m simply going to line it up along this top edge here and push it into it really really well to cut it straight along the bottom right along the plane of the bottom of the so this is what I wind up with it’s just kind of sandwiched in there like that and all it’s going to do it’s going to take up any additional airspace that happens to be in this cushion cover so again this takes a little bit of finessing to get this in and I’m making sure that I have my angled piece lined up with the angled piece on the cushion cover so if you have any unusual configurations what I would say is to take any unusual piece and put that in first so I’m going to start with that angled portion and put that directly into the corner it’s the point where these key pins are really really helpful they’re super heavy-duty so I do have to kind of manipulate this a little bit in order to get this turned up the proper way so I flipped this fabric over or under sorry 1/2 an inch and I need it a half an inch up on the other fabric and I pin it in place and this is temporary because I’m going to go back and I’m going to even all of this out as soon as I get everything pinned in all along the entire length and that’s how I do it I pull it nice and tight and then I pin it in place and you know quite honestly these pins just make it so much easier so here’s how I slip stitch this together so I have my clear thread and I’m really sorry about that that you can’t see it but you can see the technique of what how I do this with a needle I go ahead and I take the point and I put it to the through the fabric underneath and then through the fabric on top and just continue on in this manner pulling the thread nice and tight after each time you go through and you can continue this all the way along the entire length a hand stitching is all done so this cushion is complete and I’ll go ahead and I’ll demonstrate a seat cushion for you so that you can see how I the exact same principle apply to any shape of cushion I’ve started this project by going ahead and stitching down the welt cording so the welt cord is done and basically what I do here to get these nice crisp corners is I clip the well cording at the corner and make that nice crisp turn so when it’s done you’ll be able to see a little peekaboo of the finished fabric from the top peeking it through so that’s how I finished this now again I’m going to go back to that same theory about seams and starting it at certain points where the seams are so I have to sew the side on and I’m referencing how this is going to go this corner needs to be lined up with this corner so I’m going to go ahead and I’m going to line this up directly at the corner and pin it in place and this is where I’m going to start stitching so I’ll view one on this side and then I’ll do the other one on the other side and I’ll be clipping around the corner I’ll be clipping the welt cord around the corner so that I can make that turn and have it look really nice and neat and so this is where this corner is going to wind up and I’m just going to pin it in place here so that I know where to start stitching so you’ll see I started at the corner and I came around and followed this configuration for the side panel and wound up here so I’m simply going to do the exact same thing on the other side start at this corner and go all the way around and make that configuration okay so this is a little different so now we have everything finished on the inside I flip it this way up and I’m going to put right sides together with the old fabric on top and what I’ve done again lining up all the corners first line up the corners pin them and then go ahead and pull it nice and taut and then get your centerpiece and pin that and so I’ll just show you briefly how I do that so I get one of my really nice T pins i line this up right at the corner and I pin it and then I pull it nice and tight locate the center and pin it again till I get all four corners and then I’m simply going to start at one end and go all the way around okay everything is sewn together you’ll see I’ve got all the corners matched up perfectly along all the edges so I have this giant opening here and what I need to do is make sure that I have a top and a bottom and I know that this is the bottom so I’m going to insert this this way and again it’s going to take a little bit of finessing to get it in there and chances are when you go back to your original piece you’re going to notice and perfections and what came out of the manufacturing facility that actually made the cushion so you know a lot of this stuff isn’t exactly 100 percent perfect so if you feel like you’re not going to be able to get this quite right I wouldn’t worry about that because the stuff that you’re buying probably isn’t 100 percent quite right either so trust me you’re going to make a nice product here I have one last example to show you of the throw pillow that goes along the sides of the entire sectional so I have a front and back cutout Assistants be original and I have my wall cord already covered that I pulled off of the original pillow and so basically all I’m going to do at this point is go ahead and at the bottom of the pillow I’ll line up my well cord and start stitching this on respond to the right side and so once I get that done I can go ahead and meet this welt cord together and remembering that I have the ends that are open and I can slip one piece inside the other once you have all of your well cord attached to the face fabric you can then take your backing fabric and place it over the top matching all of the corners and then take your teeth pins and pin all of those in place now when you’re stitching this just make sure that you’re going to be keeping a nice size opening at the bottom so that you can get your polyester fiberfill back in and you’re not going to be struggling to get it in there if you leave a big enough hole you’ll have plenty of space in order to put that back in very easily before I go ahead and flip it right side out I take the corners and I clip them very close into the stitching and help you probably three cuts per corner and what this is going to do it’s going to allow for some bunching that might occur if you just flicked it the way it was it’ll it will alleviate that from getting to bunching in the corners and make it make it live really really straight see how well the corners turned out simply by clipping them there say it’s going to lie nice and flat and if you’ll see here’s the original you know I think my corners look a little bit better than theirs do so I’m you know I think that’s a really great tip on getting these corners to lay just just the right way so from this point I’m going to go ahead I’ll step it and then I’ll go ahead and flip stitch it again with a monofilament threads you can’t see it I just want to give you a close-up on how this is closed off it’s closed off a little differently than the actual seat cushions the seat cushions themselves really won’t be seen but this is this is a pillow it’s going to be seen from all angles and so basically here’s what I do I come up into the blue fabric and grab a little bit of that and then I take the tip of the needle and I put it in a spot just above the stitching for the welt course so it’s just a little tiny bit above that and then I pull it and let me show you one more time I have the blue fabric get it in a little bit then go just above that welt cord stitching straight across and then come through pull it nice and tight and you’ll see I have all of this done it looks just as good as anything that came out of a machine so if you follow the same procedure you’ll have the exact same results here’s the before and here’s the after they’re identical this one’s a little cleaner so I’m wasn’t it difficult and I’m just going to plug away at it I’ve got 15 cushions all together so I’m just going to do the exact same process for each cushion now in the case of your cushion and if it’s a different style if it’s got some odd little angles to it be patient and make sure that you’re making all of your little individual cuts to get around corners or to you know make a 90-degree angle so if you do those things that’s what’s really going to set you apart for getting all of these really beautiful little curves and stuff in whatever style cushion you have the cushions are all in place it’s early spring it’s beautiful along with the cushions they’re beautiful too you would never be able to find these in the store and honestly why go out and buy a new patio set when your patio set is just fine it didn’t take a whole lot of effort yes it was time-consuming but it’s not an intimidating project something that everybody could do with just a little bit of patience so until next time this is rene romeo thank you so much for watching this project

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